From the “Functional City” to “Total Function”: Modern City Planning 1925–1971

18 시암 Le Corbusierzoing Diagram

Among the problems facing modern architects in the first part of the twentieth century were the crowded conditions, traffic, inadequate light, air, poor sanitation, and lack of public space of the nineteenth century city. The solution promoted by the founding generation of CIAM (International Congress of Modern Architecture, 1928-1959), an important organization for the debate and promotion of modern architecture, was the Functional City. The functional approach to planning the city was to divide the functions of living—dwelling, work, recreation, and transportation—into autonomous areas. A shared dissatisfaction with the results of the Functional City led to the formation of a splinter group of CIAM known as Team 10. This diverse group of young CIAM

members introduced new methods and values to modern architecture. CIAM’s analytic methods and solutions of standardisation and economic efficiency, emphasized before the war, focused on satisfying the physical needs of people. It was replaced by Team 10’s call for imagination,
synthetic methods, and a focus on identity, particularity, relationships, and satisfying the “spiritual” needs of people. Those values continue to inform contemporary approaches to architecture and the “communing” of the modern city.